Vindelfjällen is the area in Sweden with the highest reindeer density. Three Sámi communities actively use the land in the reserve. From north to south lie the grazing and calving lands of Gran, Ran and Ubmeje Sámi communities. In the middle of May, reindeer give birth to their calves on snow-free patches in the mountains. During summer, the calves are marked, and the annual slaughter takes place in September. In the middle of November, the reindeer leave the mountains and are transported down towards the coast to their winter grazing grounds.
According to the Swedish law, the mountains are reserved for reindeer husbandry, and one of the purposes of the nature reserve was to contribute to the preservation of the reindeer industry.